Read the following sentences:-
- I met Sharan. Sharan gave me a pen.
- He have found the book. He lost the book.
- Ketty read the book. The book was lent to her.
- The pencil is lost. He gave me the pencil.
- I saw a deer. Deer was in forest.
Let us transform these sentences:-
- I met gursharan who gave me a pen.
- He have found the book which he lost.
- Ketty read the book which was lent to her.
- The pencil that he gave me is lost.
- I saw a deer which was in forest.
Now here after analyzing these sentences we will come to know about three things.
- Conjunctive pronoun.
- Relative pronoun.
The word which joins two statements is called as conjunction. for example:- “who” in first sentence.
The word which does double work , does work of conjunction and does work of pronoun . such words are known as Conjunctive pronouns. for example:- who, which, that as used in the sentences.
(Relative pronouns definition) When it relates or refers some noun or pronoun going before (which is called its Antecedent) , such words are known as Relative pronoun.
for example :- who, which, that as used in the sentences.
In the first sentence “he” is used instead of “Sharan”, Sharan is its Antecedent.
- The relative pronouns who has different forms for Genitive and Accusative.
1. This is the boy or the girl who runs fast.
2. This is the boy or the girl whose car looks new.
3. This is the boy or the girl whom/ who all praise.
4. These are the boys or the girls who run fast.
5. These are the boys or the girls whose exercise are done well.
6. These are the boys or the girls whom/who all praise.
Nominative, Genitive, Accusative—— Who, Whose , Whom/Who (Singular or plural). We can notice that the the relative pronouns used for singular and plural, masculine & feminine are same.
- The relative pronoun Which has the same form for the Nominative and Accusative cases.
For example :-
1. This is the house which belongs to my uncle.
2. This is the house which my uncle built cost him Rs. 500000.
NOTE:- The relative pronoun which has no genitive case , but “whose” is used as a substitute for “of which”.
- The relative that has the same form as the plural and singular. (Irrespective of gender)
For example:- Take anything that you like.
USES OF RELATIVE PRONOUN
- In general, “WHO” & “WHOM” are used for mankind in Nominative and in Accusative positively. “WHO” is used for persons only/ Sometimes used in referring to animals.
1. Those are the boys who helped me.
2. The man who is honest is trusted.
3. Blessed is he who has found his work.
4. She is the girl who slapped me.
5.They are the boys whom he teach.
6. Binny is the girl whom i love.
- “WHOSE” is used in speaking of persons, animals and things without life. “WHOSE” is used in all possessive cases.
1. The sun whose rays give life to the earth, is regarded by some people as a god.
2. He is the boy whose name is jack.
3. This is the chair whose color is blue.
4. That is the animal whose tail is long.
- “WHICH” is used for all except mankind i.e. is used for things without life or for animals. It can be singular or plural.
1. This is the bird which can fly.
2. The moment which is lost is lost for ever.
3. The dog which i recently bought is an Indian.
4. This is the animal which gives us wool.
5. This is the music system which is affordable.
“WHICH” sometimes refer to sentence.
1. He is here, which is fortunate.
2. He said he saw me there, which was true.
NOTE:- “WHO” and “WHICH” are used to restrict, limit, define more clearly the antecedent. It is also used to give some additional information.
1. The man who had cheated me was yesterday arrested by the police.
2. The pen which you see on the table cost me 100 rupee.
3. I gave her 100 rupee , which was all i had with me.
- “THAT” is used for persons or things. It can be singular or plural.
1. This is the girl that i told you of.
2. She has lost the watch that you gave her.
3. He that is not with me is against me.
4. All that i said had no effect on her.
“THAT” is used after all, same, any, nothing, none, some, only, etc.
1. I gave her all that i had.
2. All that glitters is not gold.
3. None that has come is honest.
4. Some that were fancy were sold.
5. It is only donkeys that bray.
6. Man is the only animal that can talk properly.
7. He is the same man that we saw in the park yesterday.
“THAT” is used after “Everything” & “Anything“.
1. He answered everything that was asked.
2. I can do anything that is required.
“THAT” is used after the Interrogative Pronouns “WHO”, “WHAT” .
1. What is it that troubles you so much?
2. What is here that i don’t know?
3. Who that saw here was very handsome?
4. Who am i that i should object?
SPECIAL POINTS TO BE NOTED
- “AND” & “BUT” should not be used before relative pronouns.
1. Jacky is the boy and who has played with me. (Wrong)
Jacky is the boy who has played with me. (Correct)
2. She is the girl but who has deceived me. (Wrong)
She is the girl who has deceived me.(Correct)
- Possessive cases are not used with the antecedent of relative pronoun.
1. It is reena’s book who is my sister. (Wrong)
It is the book of reena who is my sister. (Correct)
2. It is jay’s car which is new. (Correct)
here jay and car both are noun , which is Possessive pronoun.
- Personal Pronouns should not be used before Relative pronouns.
1. Vicky who is here he is my cousin. (Wrong)
Vicky who is here is my cousin. (Correct)
2. Bella who is intelligent she is industrious.(Wrong)
Bella who is intelligent is industrious.(Correct)
RELATIVE PRONOUN AND ITS ANTECEDENT
Now we all know that Relative Pronoun refers to a Noun or Pronoun (called its Antecedent) it must be of same number or persons as its Antecedent Verb shows the number and persons of Relative Pronoun.
1. The boys who were lazy were punished.
2. The flowers which grow in our field are for sale.
3. This is the only one of his stories that is worth reading.
POSITION OF RELATIVE PRONOUN
To prevent Uncertainty or inexactness in language, the Relative Pronoun should be placed as near as possible to its Antecedent.
1. The girl who won the second price in maths is the daughter of my uncle.
(If we separate relative Pronoun from its Antecedent, it will show uncertainty and inexactness.)
The girl is the daughter of my uncle who won the second price in maths.
RELATIVE PRONOUNS WITH NO ANTECEDENT / COMPOUND RELATIVE PRONOUNS
Pronouns which are formed by adding ever , so , so ever to which , what and who are known as Compound Relative Pronouns. Such Compound Relative Pronouns have no antecedent expressed.
1. Whoever comes is welcomed.
2. Take whichever you like.
3. He will take with you whomsoever he choose.
4. Whatever he saw was truth.
DO YOU KNOW?
WHAT IS NOUN?
FOR ANSWER CLICK ON “WHAT IS A NOUN“
WHAT IS PRONOUN AND ITS TYPES?
FOR ANSWER CLICK ON “PRONOUNS AND ITS TYPES“
WHAT IS SENTENCE AND PREDICATE?
FOR ANSWER CLICK ON “SENTENCE, SUBJECT AND PREDICATE“
HOW TO IMPROVE OUR GENERAL KNOWLEDGE?
FOR THIS “CLICK HERE“
WHAT IS DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN?
FOR ANSWER CLICK ON “DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS“
.WHAT IS INDEFINITE PRONOUN?
FOR ANSWER CLICK ON “INDEFINITE PRONOUN“