PESTS AND METHODS OF CONTROLLING PESTS
Methods of controlling pests without pesticides
DEFINITION OF PEST:-
Often animals are called as pests when they cause damage to agriculture by feeding on crops ,livestock, such as codling moth on apples or boll weevil on cotton. An animal could also be a pest when it causes damage to a wild ecosystem or carries germs within human habitats. Examples of these include those organisms which vector human diseases.
For example:- Rats and Fleas which carry the plague disease, mosquitoes which vector malaria, and ticks which carry Lyme disease.
METHODS OF CONTROLLING PESTS:-
Methods of controlling pests without pesticides :-
1) MANIPULATION OF MOISTURE:-
Some pests can be controlled by increasing or decreasing the moisture content of the material.
For example:- Rice weevil can not damage the grains when the moisture is less than 9%.
So it is therefore good practice to dry the grains before storage. On the other hand increasing in contents of timber logs by soaking them in water for 15 days prevent the damage from boll weevil. This is how we can control pests.
2) MANIPULATION OF LIGHT:- The moths of several species of hairy caterpillar are attracted to light. So you can decrease the population of such insects with the help of light. UV light can also be used to attract some insects. This is how we can control pests.
3) ELECTROCUTING GRID:- Electric units having UV lamps are commercially available for controlling some insects like house flies , mosquitoes, blow flies and moths.This is how we can control pests.
4) USE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC ENERGY:- Generators producing electromagnetic energy are now commercially available in advance countries and are being used for disinfecting food grains. Though electromagnetic energy kill insects in the food grains by raising the temperature of the insects to lethal levels. This is how we can control pests.
5) CULTURAL CONTROL:- Cultural methods of pest control include use of ordinary farm practices and farm machinery to control the pests. The pests are controlled by altering or modding the usual agricultural operations. The effective application of cultural control requires through knowledge of life history and habits of pests and their host plants. This is how we can control pests.
6) PROPER DISPOSAL OF PLANT RESIDUES:- Proper destruction and disposal of weeds and crop remnants after the season is over prevents the reduction of insects infestation through removal of shelter breeding sites and alternate hosts. This is how we can control pests.
For example:- Creepers of cooker bits and mustard straw give protection to painted bug during summer and red pumpkin beetle during winter. This is how we can control pests.
7) REMOVAL AND DESTRUCTION OF INFESTED MATERIALS ALONG WITH THE INSECTS:- some insects which are inside the plant tissue can not be controlled by effectively use of insecticides. This is how we can control pests.
For example:- Spotted wall worm of Okra (Ladyfinger), fruit fly of guava.
Crops should be frequently examined and infested parts should be collected collected and destroyed by burning or burring in the soil. This is how we can control pests.
8) AVOID RATOONING :- The larvae in brinjal stem stays in the roots of the plant in winter month, therefore ratooing of brinjal plant should be avoided. The infested plant should be pulled out and destroyed by burring deep in the soil. This is how we can control pests.
9) GROWING RESISTANT VARIETIES:- Resistant varieties gives satisfactory yield even in the presence of pests. So, it is useful for kitchen gardeners to use the resistant varieties. This is how we can control pests.
10) SOIL EXPOSURE:- Many insects live in the soil and opening of soil exposes them to unfavorable conditions of survival and number of birds such as crow , etc feed in insects. This is how we can control pests.
11) TIME OF CULTIVATION:- The cultivation of soil without watering in may , june reduces the damage caused by root knot nematodes. This is how we can control pests.
12) ROTATION OF CROPS:- It is the method of starving the insects which are having narrow food range. The rotation of tomato, Brinjal and Okra (Ladyfinger) with other crops reduces the problem of root knot nematodes in the soil or do not cultivate potato. This is how we can control pests.
13) MODIFICATION IN SOWING , HARVESTING DATES :- Cooker bits grown in the spring season gets serious attack of red pumpkin beetle. So, it should be early sown to avoid the attack of red pumpkin beetle. This is how we can control pests.
14) IRRIGATION OF FIELDS:- The population of termites can be reduced by irrigation by watering the fields. This is how we can control pests.
15) GROWING OF TRAP CROPS:- Certain minor crops attracts the insects of main crops and therefore minimize the damage. This is how we can control pests.
For example:- Okra crop grown near the cotton attracts the jassid and hence cotton crop can be saved from infestation. This is how we can control pests.
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