Salient Features Of Indian Constitution
Salient Features Of Indian Constitution:- Salient Features Of Indian Constitution reveal its unique formulation. The constitution if India was complied on the acquisition of independence and there are a number of Salient Features Of Indian Constitution which are typical to the document of political declaration of a newly independent state. The various Salient Features Of Indian Constitution are briefly discussed below:-
Salient Features Of Indian Constitution Lengthiest constitution :- The Indian constitution is the lengthiest one comprising of 395 Articles divided into 22 parts and 9 schedules. It is a detailed document in which the function of the legislative, Executive and judicial organs both at the center and in the states have been elaborately prescribed.
Secular State :- A salient feature of the constitution was its emphasis on secularism.People are not discriminated on the basis of religion .All citizens enjoy freedom of worship and process equal civil and political rights irrespective of their religious beliefs.The state does not have a religion of its own.
Fundamental Rights :-The constitutions provides a number of fundamental rights which are noted under six categories.They are right to equality,right to freedom,right exploitation ,right to freedom of religion,cultural and educational rights for minorities and the to seek constitutional remedies .The Supreme Court and High Court are empowered to safeguard these fundamental.
Directive Principles of State Policy :-The constitution enumerates several Directive Principles of State Policy which are intended to be implemented by the Center and State Governments in due course .They are aimed at the promotion of the material and moral well-being of the people and to transform India into a Welfare State .The Directive Principles cannot be enforced by the the law courts.They are only some guidelines issued to the future governments.
Federal in Form and Unitary in Essence :-Another salient feature of the Indian Constitution is that it has provided a system of government which is federal in form but unitary in essence and spirit .It has three essential requisites of a federation ,a written and rigid constitution,distribution of powers between the Center and the state ,and supreme Court .But in essence ,the Indian Constitution is unitary in character.The Union Government exercise almost unquestioned control over the states in legislative ,financial and administrative spheres .This control becomes tighter in times of emergencies.
Parliamentary Form Of Government :-The constitution provides a Parliamentary form of Government in the Center as well as in the states.The Indian President and the state Governor are constitutional heads. The cabinet exercises the executive power and its responsible to the concerned legislature. The cabinet can be removed from the office by vote of no-confidence in the legislature even before its term of office is over.
Judicial Review :- Another salient feature of the Indian Constitution is the provision for judicial review. This means that the supreme court of India is empowered to declare a law passed by the India Parliament as null and void if it is inconsistent with the Fundamental Rights. In the case of the Acts passed by the state legislature, this power is vested with the concerned High Courts.
Rigid as well as Flexible :- The Indian Constitution is rigid in some respects and flexible in other respects.
Independent Judiciary :- Another salient feature of the Indian Constitution is that the constitution has made the judiciary independent of the executive. The president of India appoints the judges of the Supreme Court and High Courts after consulting the Chief Justice of India. The judges are free from the executive control. Their tenure is guaranteed and their salaries are fixed by the Constitution.
Fundamental Duties :- Another salient feature of the Indian Constitution is the incorporation of the Fundamental duties of citizens. The 42nd amendment of 1976 added Article 51-A to the Constitution requiring all citizens to fulfill 10 duties. Failure to perform these duties does not carry any penalty, yet the citizens are expected to follow them.
Adult Franchise :- Adult suffrage is an important feature of the Constitution. All the adults who attained 21 years of age became eligible to exercise their franchise. Thereby, nearly 50 % of the population was enrolled as voters.
Bicameral Legislature :- Bicameral Legislature was constituted at the Center as well as in some of the States. The members of the Lower House are directly elected by the people on the basis of adult franchise. The life of the lower House is 5 years unless it is dissolved earlier. The members of the Upper House are indirectly elected for a period of 6 years. The Upper House is a permanent body and one third of its members retiring every two years. Salient Features Of Indian Constitution
Indian constitution Federal or Unitary
Indian Constitution shows Federal as well as Unitary System :-
- Single Citizenship.
- Single Constitution.
- Power of union to over ride on the state matters.
- During emergency the system became virtually unitary.
- Changes in the names and boundaries of the states by the parliament.
- Integrated Judiciary system.
- Centre appoints the Governors.
- Dependence of states on the center for economic assistance and grants.
- Supremacy of the constitution.
- Division of the powers between the union and the states.
- The Upper House of the parliament represented by the states by the union.
Indian constitution amendment procedure:-
Three methods of constitution amendment (Indian Constitution amendment Procedure) prevailed in India
- Amendment by Simple Majority :- Articles that can be amended in parliament by simple majority as tat required for passing any ordinary law.
- Amendment by special Majority :- By majority of the total members of each house of the parliament as well as by a majority of not less than 2/3 rd of the members of that house present and vote.
- Amendment by Special Majority and ratification by the states :- Articles which requite that in addition to the special majority mentioned above, ratified by not less than 1/2 of the state legislature.
National Symbols Of India:-
Below are some national symbols of India:-
- The name of the country :- India is known as Bharat (Article 1).
- National Flag :- On 24th July 1947 adopted by Constituent Assembly. It is having 3:2 ratio between length and breath. It is having three colors saffron, white & green. Middle portion having blue colour chakra , which had 24 spokes.
- National Emblem :- It has been taken from Sarnath (Varanasi) Piller of Ashoka and on January 26, 1950 adopted by Government of India. The words Satyameva Jayate which was written at the base in Devanagarl script taken from Mundakopnishad.
- National Anthem :- It was written by Gurudev Ravindra Nath Tagore. Its recitation period is 52 seconds. First time it was sung in Calcutta Congress Session on December 27, 1911. On Jan 24, 1950 constituent assembly adopted it.
- National Song :- Vandematram taken from Anand math, the famous work of AUrbindo Ghosh . Sung for the first time at the Congress session in 1896.
- National Calender :- Based on the Saka Era . Chaitra is its first month and a normal year of 365 days along with the gregorian calender. It was adopted by the Government on March 22, 1957.
- National Animal :- Tiger is the national animal. It has 8 species around the world and Indian species knows as Royal Bengal Tiger. The majestic tiger (Panthera Tigris) is the national animal of India.
- National Bird :- Indian peacock (Pavo cristatus). It is fully protected under the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.
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